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# Class XI Physics Syllabus

COURSE STRUCTURE
Class XI Physics (Theory)

 Unit Chapters Weightage I Physical World & Measurement 03 II Kinematics 10 III Laws of Motion 10 IV Work, Energy & Power 06 V Motion of System of particles & Rigid Body 06 VI Gravitation 05 VII Properties of Bulk Matter 10 VIII Thermodynamics 05 IX Behaviour of Perfect Gas & Kinetic Theory of gases 05 X Oscillations & Waves 10 TOTAL 70

Unit I: Physical World and Measurement (periods 10)
Physics - scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society.
Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived
units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments;
errors in measurement; significant figures.
Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.

Unit II: Kinematics (Periods 30)
Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity.
Elementary concepts of differentiation and intergration for describing motion.Uniform and nonuniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocitytime, position-time graphs.
Relation for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).
Scalar and vector quantities; Position and displacement vertors, general vectors and notation;
equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors.
Relative velocity. Unit vector; Resolution of a vector in a plane - rectangular components. Scalar and Vector product of vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform accelerationprojectile motion. Uniform circular motion.

Unit III: Laws of Motion (Periods 16)
Intuitive Concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s
second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear
momentum and its applications.
Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction,
lubrication.
Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on
level circular road, vehicle on banked road).

Unit IV: Work, Energy and Power (Periods 16)
Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem,
power.
Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces: conservation of
mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces: motion in a vertical
circle; elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

Unit V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body (Periods 18)
Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion.
Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod.
Moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some
examples.
Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equations of rotational motion, comparison
of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration.
Values of moments of inertia, for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel
and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.

Unit VI: Gravitation (Periods 14)
Keplar’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation.
Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.
Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite.
Geo-stationary satellites.

Unit VII: Properties of Bulk Matter (Periods 28)
Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear,
modulus of rigidity, poisson's ratio; elastic energy.
Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic
brakes). Effect of gravity on fluid pressure.
Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Critical
velocity. Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.
Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure, application of surface
tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.
Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases, anomalous
expansion; specific heat capacity; Cp, Cv - calorimetry; change of state - latent heat capacity.
Heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation, Qualitative ideas of Blackbody radiation
green house effect, thermal conductivity, Newton’s law of cooling, Wein's displacement Law,
Stefan's law.

Unit VIII: Thermodynamics (Periods 12)
Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of thermodynamics). Heat, work
and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes.
Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and
refrigerators.

Unit IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory (Periods 8)
Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done in compressing a gas.
Kinetic theory of gases - assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature;
rms speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only)
and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path, Avogadro’s
number.

Unit X: Oscillations and Waves (Periods 28)
Periodic motion - period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions.
Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring–restoring
force and force constant; energy in S.H.M. Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum–
derivation of expression for its time period; free and forced and damped oscillations (qualitative
ideas only), resonance.
Wave motion. Transverse and longitudinal waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation
for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves
in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect.
Practicals
Note: Every student will perform 15 experiments (8 from Section A and 7 from Section B).The
activities mentioned are for the purpose of demonstration by the teachers only. These are not to
be evaluated during the academic year. For evaluation in examination, students would be required
to perform two experiments - One from each Section.

SECTION A
Experiments Total Periods : 60
(Any 8 experiments out of the following to be performed by the Students)
1. To measure diameter of a small spherical/cylindrical body using Vernier Callipers.
2. To measure internal diameter and depth of a given beaker/calorimeter using Vernier
Callipers and hence find its volume.
3. To measure diameter of a given wire using screw gauge.
4. To measure thickness of a given sheet using screw gauge.
5. To measure volume of an irregular lamina using screw gauge.
6. To determine radius of curvature of a given spherical surface by a spherometer.
7. To determine the mass of two different objects using a beam balance.
8. To find the weight of a given body using parallelogram law of vectors.
9. Using a simple pendulum, find the effective length of second's pendulum using appropriate graph.
10. To study the relationship betwen force of limiting friction and normal reaction
and to find the co-efficient of friction between a block and a horizontal surface.
11. To find the downward force, along an inclined plane, acting on a roller due to
gravitational pull of the earth and study its relationship with the angle of
inclination (O) by plotting graph between force and sinθ.

Activities (For the purpose of demonstration only)
1. To make a paper scale of given least count, e.g. 0.2cm, 0.5 cm.
2. To determine mass of a given body using a metre scale by principle of moments.
3. To plot a graph for a given set of data, with proper choice of scales and error bars.
4. To measure the force of limiting friction for rolling of a roller on a horizontal plane.
5. To study the variation in range of a jet of water with angle of projection.
6. To study the conservation of energy of a ball rolling down on inclined plane (using a
double inclined plane).
7. To study dissipation of energy of a simple pendulum by plotting a graph between square
of amplitude and time.

SECTION B
Experiments

(Any 7 experiments out of the following to be performed by the students)
1. To determine Young’s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire.
2. To find the force constant of a helical spring by plotting a graph between load and extension.
3. To study the variation in volume with pressure for a sample of air at constant temperature
by plotting graphs between P and V, and between P and I/V.
4. To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method.
5. To determine the coefficient of viscosity of a given viscous liquid by measuring terminal
velocity of a given spherical body.
6. To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time by plotting a
cooling curve.
7. To determine specific heat capacity of a given (i) solid (ii) liquid, by method of mixtures.
8. (i) To study the relation between frequency and length of a given wire under constant
tension using sonometer.
(ii) To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension for constant
frequency using sonometer.
9. To find the speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube by tworesonance positions.

Activities (For the purpose of demonstration only)
1. To observe change of state and plot a cooling curve for molten wax.
2. To observe and explain the effect of heating on a bi-metallic strip.
3. To note the change in level of liquid in a container on heating and interpret the observations.
4. To study the effect of detergent on surface tension of water by observing capillary rise.
5. To study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid.
6. To study the effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped metre scale loaded at
(i) its end (ii) in the middle.

SUGGESTED LIST OF DEMONSTRATION EXPERIMENTS
CLASS XI Physics

1. To demonstrate that a centripetal force is necessary for moving a body with a uniform speed
along a circle, and that the magnitude of this force increases with increase in angular speed.
2. To demonstrate inter-conversion of potential and kinetic energy.
3. To demonstrate conservation of linear momentum.
4. To demonstrate conservation of angular momentum.
5. To demonstrate the effect of angle of launch on range of a projectile.88
6. To demonstrate that the moment of inertia of a rod changes with the change of position of a pair
of equal weights attached to the rod.
7. To study variation of volume of a gas with its pressure at constant temperature using a doctors'
syringe.
8. To demonstrate Bernoulli's theorem with simple illustrations
9. To demonstrate that heat capacities of equal masses of different materials are different.
10. To demonstrate free oscillations of different vibrating systems.
11. To demonstrate resonance with a set of coupled pendulums.
12. To demonstrate longitudinal and transverse waves.
13. To demonstrate the phenomenon of beats, due to superposition, of waves produced by two
sources of sound of slightly different frequencies
14. To demonstrate resonance using an open pipe.
15. To demonstrate the direction of torque.
16. To demonstrate the law of moments.
Recommended Physics Books.